Islam is very complete. We know that everything have been regulated such as way of worship, ethics, even dua starting when we wake up in the morning until sleep time in night. We have guidance in our life that come from the Prophet Muhammad. Not like the other, Islam is very comprehensive and as mercy to all universe.
Ethics Before Eating
Ethics before eating are as follows:
1. Choose only halal Foods and Drinks, clean from prohibited dirt, and syubha (doubtful), because Allah Ta'ala says,
"O ye who believe! Eat of the good sustanances that We have provided for you. And be grateful to Allah, if it is Him ye worship." (Al Baqarah(2):172).
The definition of a good prosperity is halal no dirt in it.
2. He has intended of the foods and drinks for the means to strenghten his worship toward Allah, so that he be rewarded for what he ate, and he drank. Something that is mubah (permissible) if it is intended well, so it changed its status became an observance and a moslem be rewarded cause of it.
3. He washed his hands before eating if they are dirty, or it can not ensure the cleanliness of both.
4. He sat with tawadlu (humble) by sitting kneeling or sitting on his both ankles, or enforce his right leg and he was sitting on his left leg, as seat of the Prophet., Because the Messenger of Allah said,
"I did not eat in the lean, because I'm a slave that eat like a slave eating, and I sit like a slave sit." (Narrated by Bukhari).
5. Receiving food, and not criticize it. If he is interested in the food and he ate it, and if he was not attracted to it, so he did not eat it, because Abu Hurairah said,
"The Prophet never criticize the food, if he was interested in him so he ate it, and if he was not attracted to him, so he left it. "(Narrated by Abu Daud).
6. He ate with the others, for example with the guests, wife, children, or his servants, because the Messenger of Allah. said,
"Assemble you all in your food, surely you will be given blessings in it." (Narrated by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi who saheeh it).
Ethics while Eating
Among ethical while eating is as follows:
1. Start a meal with say basmalah, because the Messenger of Allah. said,
"If any one of you eat, then mention the name of Allah Ta'ala. If he forgot to mention the name of Allah, let him mention the name of Allah at the beginning and let him say, In the name of God, from the beginning to the end. " (Narrated by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi).
2. End the meal by praising Allah, because the Prophet. said,
"Whoever eats food, and said, 'Praise be to Allah who gives me food and gave it to me without any efforts and resources away from me, then his past sins be forgiven." (Muttafaq alaih).
3. He ate with three fingers of his right hand, discouraging bites, chew food properly, eating of food that close to him (side) and do not eat from the middle of the plate, because of the following phostulates, the Prophet said to 'Umar ibn Salamah,
"Young man, mention the name of Allah, eat with your right hand, and eat food that is close to you (side)." (Muttafaq alaih).
"The Blessings down in the middle of the meal. So therefore, eat from the edges, and not eat from the middle. "(Muttafaq alaih)
4. Chewing food properly, lick his fingers of food before wiping with a cloth, or wash it with water, because of the following phostulates: Messenger of Allah. said,
"If any one of you eat the food, then he should not clean up his fingers before he licked it."
(Reported by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi).
Jabir bin 'Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah ordered to lick the fingers and plates. He said,
"Surely you do not know where your food the blessing it is." (Narrated by Muslim).
5. If there is a food that fell, he took and ate it, because the Prophet. said,
"If fall off a bite of your food, should he take it, remove dirt from it, then take a bite of the food, so not let the devil eat it." (Narrated by Muslim).
6. Not blowing hot food, eat it when it's cold, do not breathe in the water when drinking, and breathing out of water up to three times, because of the following phostulates: Hadith Anas bin Malik said,
"The Prophet breathe outside of the water container up to three times." (muttafaq alaih).
Hadeeth of Abu Said Al-Khudri that the Messenger of Allah forbade breathing in drinks. (Narrated by At-Tirmidhi). Hadeeth of Ibn Abbas that the Messenger of Allah forbade breathing in the drink, or blow on it. (Narrated by At-Tirmidhi).
7. Avoid excessive sated, because the Messenger of Allah said:
"Son of Adam does not fill the place worse, than his stomach. Son of Adam was enough with a few mouthfuls that strengthen the spine. If he does not want to (not enough), then with a third of food, and with a third of drink, and another third for himself. "(Narrated by Ahmad, Ibn Majah, and al-Hakim. The Hadeeth is hasan).
8. Give food or drink to the most elderly, then turning to the people who were on his right and so on, and he became the last man to get rations drinks, because the following hadeeth, say the Prophet Muhammad,
"Start with the parents. Start with the parents." Mean, start with the elders. Prophet asked permission to Ibn Abbas to give food to the elderly people left him, because Ibn Abbas was in his right hand, while older people were left him. That permission request to Ibn Abbas to deliver food to elderly people on the left, shows that he was the most eligible person to drink is the person who sits on the right. The Prophet said., "To the right, then to the right." (Muttafaq Alaib).
"The Giver drink the last."
9. He did not start eating, or drinking, being in the meeting room there are people who reserve the right to begin with, because of age or because of the superiority of his position, because it is unethical, and causing the man labeled greedy. A poet said, if hands stretched out to stores, so I did not rush ahead of them, because the people who are the most greedy were the ones rush to food.
10. Hospitable towards his friends when eat along with. And not eating more than others, especially if the food is not much, because eating a lot in such conditions is eating the right (quota) of others.
11. Did not see his friends while eating, and do not look at them, because it could be an embarrassment to them. He had to hold his views on women who eat around him, and did not steal a view of them, because it can hurts them, make them angry and he got all of that sin.
12. Not doing acts that considered immodest by the local people. For example, should not be waved his hand in the dish, not hold his head up to the plate when eating so that there is not anything that falls from the head to the plate, when took the bread with his teeth he should not dip the rest in the plate, and not to say slovenly, because it can interrupt one of his friends, and disturbing the Moslem not good.
13. If he ate with the poor, he should prioritize these poor people. If he ate with his brothers, it is allowed to joking with them within the limits allowed. If he ate with the superior in position, then he must be polite, and respectful towards them.
Ethics After Eating
Among the ethics after the meal is as follows:
1. He stopped eating before sated, because it mimics the Prophet Muhammad so he would not fall into perdition, and obesity which eliminates his intelligence.
2. He licked his hand, then wipe or wash it. But wash it better.
3. He took the food that fell off when he eats, because there recommended against it, and because it is part of thanksgiving for prosperity.
4. Clean up leftover food in his teeth, and rinse to clean his mouth, because with the mouth he dhikr toward Allah Ta'ala, speaks with his brothers, and because oral health can prolongs the hygiene dental.
5. Praising Allah Ta'ala after he ate and drank. When he drinks milk, he said,
"O Allah, bless what you have given us, and increase Your prosperity (to us)".
When breaking the fast in the people place, he said,
"People who do fasting, Iftar (open) at your place, the good people eat your food, and may the angels pray for you.”